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What is peptic ulcer disease?

What is peptic ulcer disease?

The condition known as peptic ulcer disease causes sores or ulcers to appear on the lining of the stomach or the first section of the small intestine (the duodenum). The stomach lining is typically shielded from the effects of its digestive juices by a thick layer of mucus. However, a number of factors can weaken this barrier, allowing stomach acid to harm the tissue.

What Causes Of Peptic Ulcer Disease?

When the stomach or small intestine’s inner surface is attacked by digestive tract acid, peptic ulcers develop. The acid can produce a painful open sore that may bleed.

A mucous layer covers your digestive tract, typically protecting it from acid. You could, however, develop an ulcer if the amount of acid is increased or the amount of mucus is decreased.

Typical causes include

  • a microbe. The mucous layer that covers and shields the tissues that line the stomach and small intestine is a common habitat for Helicobacter pylori bacteria. The H. pylori bacterium frequently causes no issues, but it can also lead to ulceration by inflaming the stomach’s inner layer.
  • How the H. pylori infection spreads is unknown. By kissing or other intimate close contacts, it may be passed from person to person. H. pylori can also be acquired through food and water.
  • use of specific painkillers on a regular basis. Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which include some over-the-counter and prescription pain relievers, can irritate or inflame the lining of your stomach and small intestine. Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, and other brands), naproxen sodium (Aleve, Anaprox DS, and other brands), ketoprofen, and other drugs are among them. They are devoid of acetaminophen (Tylenol, others).
  • different medicines. Combining certain other medications with NSAIDs can significantly increase the risk of developing ulcers. These include steroids, anticoagulants, low-dose aspirin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), alendronate (Fosamax), and risedronate (Actonel).

How To Diagnosis It?

Your doctor may conduct a physical examination and request a medical history before looking for an ulcer. Afterward, you might have to have diagnostic exams like:

H. pylori testing in the lab. To find out if you have the bacterium H. pylori in your body, your doctor may suggest tests. He or she might perform a blood, stool, or breath test to check for H. pylori. The most accurate test is the breathalyzer.

You consume radioactive carbon-containing beverages or foods prior to the breathalyzer test. In your stomach, H. pylori break down the substance. You then blow into a bag that is later sealed. Your breath sample will contain carbon dioxide, which is radioactive carbon if you have an H. pylori infection.

Tell your doctor if you’re taking an antacid before the H. pylori test if you do. Depending on the test, you might need to temporarily stop taking the medication because antacids can cause false-negative results.

Endoscopy. Your upper digestive system may be examine by your doctor using a scope (endoscopy). A hollow tube with a lens attached to it called an endoscope is pass down your throat, into your stomach, and small intestine during an endoscopy. Your doctor examines the endoscope to check for ulcers.

If an ulcer is found, your doctor might take a small tissue sample (biopsy) to be examined in a lab. Additionally, a biopsy can determine if H. pylori is present in the stomach lining.

How to treat a peptic ulcer

The cause of peptic ulcers affects the treatment. Typically, treatment entails eliminating the H. pylori bacterium, if present, minimizing the use of NSAIDs, and aiding in the healing of your ulcer with medication.

Medications may consist of:

antibiotics to eradicate H. pylori. A combination of antibiotics may be suggest by your doctor if H. pylori are discover in your digestive system in order to eradicate the bacterium. These include tetracycline, levofloxacin, clarithromycin (Biaxin), metronidazole (Flagyl), tinidazole (Tindamax), amoxicillin (Amoxil), and clarithromycin (Amoxil).

Your location and the level of antibiotic resistance in your area will affect which antibiotics are prescribe. For two weeks, you’ll probably need to take antibiotics in addition to additional medications to lower stomach acid, like a proton pump inhibitor and perhaps bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol).

drugs that help the body heal by preventing the production of acid. PPIs, or proton pump inhibitors, work to lower stomach acid by preventing the action of the cells’ acid-producing components. These medicines include omeprazole (Prilosec), lansoprazole (Prevacid), rabeprazole (Aciphex), esomeprazole (Nexium), and pantoprazole, both prescription and over-the-counter (Protonix).

Proton pump inhibitor use over an extended period of time, especially at high doses, may increase your risk of hip, wrist, and spine fractures. Consult your doctor to see if taking a calcium supplement could lower this risk.

medications that lower the production of acid. Histamine (H-2) blockers, also known as acid blockers, lessen the amount of stomach acid released into your digestive tract, relieving ulcer pain and promoting healing.

The drugs famotidine (Pepcid AC), cimetidine, and omeprazole are examples of acid blockers that are available with or without a prescription.

stomach acid-neutralizing antacids. A prescription for an antacid might be prescribe by your doctor. Antacids can quickly relieve pain while neutralizing any existing stomach acid. Depending on the primary ingredients, side effects might include diarrhea or constipation.

How can I prevent ulcers?

Using the same methods suggested as home remedies for treating ulcers may lower your risk of developing peptic ulcers. It might also be beneficial to:

Defend yourself against infections. Although the exact mechanism by which H. pylori spreads is unknown, there is some evidence that it may happen through contact with contaminated water or food.

You can take precautions to safeguard yourself from infections like H. pylori by regularly washing your hands with soap and water and consuming fully cooked foods.

Be cautious when using painkillers. Take action to lessen your risk of stomach issues if you frequently use painkillers that raise your peptic ulcer risk. Take your medication, for instance, with food.

Find the lowest dose that will still help you feel pain relief by working with your doctor. Avoid drinking alcohol while taking your medication because the two together can make you more likely to experience stomach upset.

If you require an NSAID, you might also require the use of other drugs, such as antacids, proton pump inhibitors, acid blockers, or cytoprotective agents. COX-2 inhibitors are a subclass of NSAIDs that may have a lower propensity to cause peptic ulcers but a higher propensity to cause heart attacks.


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